Archive for the ‘California’ Category

Hyatt Decision Due Tomorrow (Thursday)

Wednesday, September 17th, 2014

The long running battle between Gilbert Hyatt and the Franchise Tax Board of California here in Nevada is likely nearing a conclusion. The Nevada Supreme Court listed the Hyatt case in their list of Forthcoming Opinions. Given that the FTB’s liability is up to $500,000,000 (if the lower court decision is upheld), this is a very important decision.

For those unfamiliar with the case, Gilbert Hyatt moved to Nevada from California. He moved in October 1991, but the FTB held that he didn’t move until April 1992, conveniently after Mr. Hyatt received significant income from patents he held. The FTB assessed tax, penalties, interest, and the civil fraud penalty.

In January 1998, Mr. Hyatt filed a lawsuit against the FTB, alleging that the FTB committed torts during the audit, including invasion of privacy, outrageous conduct, abuse of process, fraud, and negligent misrepresentation. The FTB challenged that Mr. Hyatt could sue the tax agency; California law immunizes the FTB from lawsuits. That portion of the case went to the US Supreme Court; the US Supreme Court ruled in 2003 that he could sue the tax agency.

The case was heard in 2008 here in Las Vegas. Mr. Hyatt won and was awarded $138.8 million of actual damages and $250 million in punitive damages. (Including interest, the amount that Mr. Hyatt is due is up to $500 million.) The FTB appealed; that appeal was heard in May 2012 by the Nevada Supreme Court. (Nevada does not have intermediate courts of appeal.) That’s the decision that will be released tomorrow. I will report on the decision tomorrow (Thursday) afternoon.

Once Again, Bring Me the Usual Suspects: 2014 Small Business Tax Index

Thursday, May 1st, 2014

The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council recently released their “Small Business Tax Index 2014.” You may remember that last October I wrote about their “Small Business Policy Index 2013.” Congratulations are in order for my home state, the Silver State, for leading the way. Here are the top ten states:

1. Nevada (9.677)
2. South Dakota
3. Texas
4. Wyoming
5. Washington
6. Florida
7. Alabama
8. Ohio
9. Colorado
10. Alaska

Bringing up the rear are these ten states:

41. Connecticut
42. Oregon
43. Vermont
44. Maine
45. New York
46. Iowa
47. Hawaii
48. New Jersey
49. Minnesota
50. California (82.695)

The numbers in parentheses are the total score for all factors. Why is California so far behind Nevada?
– Nevada has no personal income tax; California has the highest personal income tax in the country.

A high personal income tax rate raises the costs of working, saving, investing, and risk taking. Personal income tax rates vary among states, therefore affecting crucial economic decisions and activities. In fact, the personal income tax influences business far more than generally assumed because more than 92 percent of businesses file taxes as individuals (e.g., sole proprietorship, partnerships and S-Corps.), and therefore pay personal income taxes rather than corporate income taxes.

– Nevada has no capital gains tax; California has the highest capital gains tax rate in the country. “One of the biggest obstacles that start-ups or expanding businesses face is access to capital. State capital gains taxes, therefore, impact the economy by directly affecting the rate of return on investment and entrepreneurship.”

– Nevada doesn’t tax dividends and interest; California has the top rate on these in the country. “Quite simply, higher tax rates on dividends and interest mean reduced resources and incentives for saving and investment, which in turn, works against entrepreneurship, economic growth and job creation.”

-Nevada doesn’t have a corporate income tax; California does (they rank 41st in this category). The same rankings apply for corporate capital gains taxes.

– California gets a negative for imposing a corporate level tax on S-Corporation, an individual AMT, a corporate AMT, and for having a progressive income tax (Nevada has none of these). California does index tax brackets, so it doesn’t lose a point here.

– On property tax, Nevada ranks 21st and California ranks 28th (they are fairly similar).

– In one category, California ranks significantly above Nevada: sales and gross receipts/excise taxes. California ranks 26th and Nevada ranks 48th.

– California ranks first in one category: unemployment taxes while Nevada is just behind in 6th.

In any case, California ends up at the bottom. Given its ranking at the bottom of the policy index, that’s a daily double that should drive California’s political leaders to make changes…but won’t.

Toyota Living Up to Their Slogan: They’re Going Places (to Texas from California)

Monday, April 28th, 2014

Toyota’s current slogan is “Let’s go places.” And they are–Toyota is leaving the Bronze Golden State and moving to the Lone Star State. While Toyota isn’t saying anything about why they might move roughly 5,000 employees from Torrance to Dallas, it doesn’t take a genius to know that taxes and regulations are two prime factors.

“The costs of doing business in Southern California are much higher than the costs of doing business in Tennessee,” Nissan Chief Executive Carlos Ghosn said at the time [Nissan announced they were moving their headquarters to Tennessee from Gardena, California]. He cited cheaper real estate and lower business taxes as key reasons for the move.

Fritz Hitchcock, who owns several Toyota dealerships in Southern California, said Toyota’s decision won’t affect local car sales. But he said it represents an “indictment of California’s business climate.”

California ranks at the bottom of almost every comparison of state business climates and taxes. Texas ranks near the top in both categories. Yet I read that the California legislature is considering even more anti-business legislation. (The link goes to an article on a proposal to tie California corporation tax to the differential in pay between a CEO and the average employee.)

When I moved my business from California to Nevada, taxes and regulations were prime reasons. It’s far easier to uproot a one-person business than it is the marketing arm of Toyota. That said, California is giving business owners plenty of reasons to check out neighboring states. The desert sands of Nevada don’t make the world’s best meteorological climate, but the business climate here is day-and-night better in comparison to California.

Gilbert Hyatt Sues FTB & BOE Over 20+ Year Wait

Sunday, April 27th, 2014

There are delays and there are delays. Gilbert Hyatt has been waiting two years to find out how the Nevada Supreme Court would rule on the (California) Franchise Tax Board’s appeal of his $500 million award. A decision in that case could come at any time (well, on any Thursday since that’s the day of the week that the Nevada Supreme Court releases decisions). But that two year delay is nothing compared to the delay in the original matter.

For those unfamiliar with Mr. Hyatt, he invented items related to microprocessors and semiconductors. (I’m sure my brother could give a much better description of this.) Back in 1991 (yes, this case goes that far back) he moved to Las Vegas; he knew he was soon going to get a large payment and Nevada’s state income tax rate–or better put, the lack thereof–appealed to him. The Franchise Tax Board (California’s income tax agency) said he didn’t move until sometime in 2012, conveniently after he received that payment. The FTB assessed tax and penalties. Mr. Hyatt appealed those.

Mr. Hyatt also argued that he had been subject to torts in Nevada and filed a lawsuit here in Las Vegas against the FTB in 1998. He alleged that the FTB had, among other things, rummaged through his garbage, visited business partners and doctors, and shared his social security number with the media. Bill Leonard (a former member of California’s Board of Equalization) said,

This is outrageous behavior and I call on the FTB to rein in their agents. What really galled me is the FTB testified in open court that this level of harassment was only a typical audit. If true, then the stormtroopers are alive and well at the FTB.

Mr. Hyatt’s case went up to the US Supreme Court. In 2003, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that his case could go forward. In 2008, the trial was held and the FTB lost. That’s the appeal that the Nevada Supreme Court heard in 2012.

Meanwhile, Mr. Hyatt’s audit was decided against him in 1996. If you lose at the FTB, you can appeal a case to the Board of Equalization (BOE). That’s what Mr. Hyatt did. In 2008, Mr. Hyatt thought his BOE appeal would be heard within two years. It still hasn’t been heard. So he filed another lawsuit.

He has filed a lawsuit in federal court in Sacramento accusing the FTB and BOE of depriving him of his constitutional rights. As noted in Dan Walters’ column,

“Without this court’s grant of relief that Hyatt seeks,” his suit says, “the FTB’s 20-plus-year vendetta to ‘get’ Hyatt will continue indefinitely and unabated in violation of Hyatt’s equal protection rights.”

It’s been nearly 23 years since Mr. Hyatt did (or didn’t) move out of California. It’s been 18 years since the FTB rules on his appeal and the case has been in the hands of the BOE. Yes, I’m sure California’s tax agencies have been moving with all possible speed….

Mr. Hyatt is 76. My suspicion is that the litigation between him and California’s tax agencies will last beyond his lifetime.

Bozo Tax Tip #7: Ignoring California

Thursday, April 3rd, 2014

Yesterday I looked at the idea of forming a Nevada Corporation while in California and being able to avoid California taxes. It doesn’t work. Today’s focus is on something that comes up now and then and applies to trusts.

Let’s assume John and Jane, two California residents, form a trust to benefit their children, Ann and Bob. Ann lives in Florida; Bob resides in California. The trust is an irrevocable trust, so it files its own tax return (a Form 1041). The income to the beneficiaries is reported on Schedule K-1s. Ann is surprised and calls her accountant when she receives both a federal K-1 and a California K-1.

The issue is simple: The trust is a California trust, so the income is California-source. California requires that a Schedule K-1 for Form 541 (California’s trust tax return) be included. Yes, Ann must pay California tax on the income. Ann’s CPA called me and asked me why I included the K-1 from California. My response was succinct: I have to and Ann has to pay the tax.

California’s desire to have anyone and everyone pay California tax has led to many trusts relocating to Nevada (which has no state income tax) and other trust-friendly states. California isn’t one of those states. Ann’s parents, John and Jane, could have formed the trust in Nevada but because they didn’t Ann is stuck in the Hotel California. You can check out any time but you can never leave.

Ignoring the California K-1 is a Bozo idea. Instead of just paying tax, you will get the joy of paying tax, penalties, and interest. If your parents are in California and thinking of forming a trust to benefit you, it may be worth your time to talk about Nevada to them. Otherwise, welcome to the Hotel California.

Bozo Tax Tip #8: Nevada Corporations

Wednesday, April 2nd, 2014

A repeat follows, but it’s one again getting a lot of play due to business conditions in California. While I’m focusing on California and Nevada, the principle applies to any pair of states.

Nevada is doing everything it can to draw businesses from California. Frankly, California is doing a lot to draw businesses away from the Bronze Golden State. But just like last year you need to beware if you’re going to incorporate in Nevada.

If the corporation operates in California it will need to file a California tax return. Period. It doesn’t matter if the corporation is a California corporation, a Delaware corporation, or a Nevada corporation.

Now, if you’re planning on moving to Nevada incorporating in the Silver State can be a very good idea (as I know). But thinking you’re going to avoid California taxes just because you’re a Nevada corporation is, well, bozo.

An Update on the BOE’s Fixer-Upper

Wednesday, March 12th, 2014

When I last wrote about the home of California’s Board of Equalization–one of two tax collecting agencies in California–I called it a fixer-upper. That might have been kind.

It does have a good location (right in downtown Sacramento). It is 24-stories tall. Of course, there are a few problems. Like the windows that pop out randomly and take the wings of gravity down to the ground. There’s the mold that’s been found in many areas of the building…toxic mold. If you ever have to go above the ground floor you might want to use the stairs: The elevator doors periodically don’t open.

The most recent issues relate to water pipe issues. It seems that the waste lines tend to leak. Now it’s been determined that the entire drain system wasn’t built to code. Oops….

The California state auditor is now going to conduct a five-month long study about what to do with the BOE headquarters. Hopefully the auditor will be able to find some solutions before any more problems pop up.

Your Check Might Not be in the Mail

Thursday, March 6th, 2014

I used to live in Orange County, California. Earlier this week a US Postal Service caught fire as it was heading toward an airport after leaving the Santa Ana mail sorting center. So if you mailed something on Monday, March 3rd from ZIP Codes starting with 926, 927, 928, 906, 917 and 918, it might have been burnt to a crisp. All the mail the truck was carrying was destroyed (an estimated 120,000 pieces). (No one was hurt in the accident.)

If you happen to have mailed a tax payment or tax form hopefully you used certified mail. When your payment doesn’t show up–and you should check to see if the check cleared–tax agencies will normally consider the certified mail receipt as proof of filing. The USPS is offering documentation of the fire (if the news stories aren’t enough).

This is the third incident like this in recent years that I can remember. Back in 2005 a truck carrying payments leaving the San Francisco Post Office Box where IRS payments go made a right turn on the Hayward Bridge (across the San Francisco Bay). There’s a reason why there’s a bridge and you don’t make right turns while on a bridge. Those payments went to the fishes. In 2012, a truck carrying mail to New Jersey government offices went up in flames.

Most likely, this incident will have minimal impact on taxes as it is early in Tax Season. Still, this is a good reminder why if you do mail a tax form or tax payment that you use certified mail, return receipt requested. That way should there be a problem it’s an inconvenience rather than one leading to costly penalties.

California State Senator Ron Calderon Indicted on Bribery & Tax Charges

Sunday, February 23rd, 2014

This hasn’t been a good year for Democratic state senators in California. Back in January State Senator Roderick White of Inglewood was convicted of five counts of voter fraud, two counts of perjury, and one count of filing a false declaration of candidacy. His sentencing is scheduled for March. This past week State Senator Ron Calderon of Montebello was indicted in a bribery scandal.

Senator Calderon is accused of 24 counts, including mail fraud, wire fraud, honest services fraud, bribery, money laundering and conspiracy to commit money laundering, and aiding in the filing of a false tax return. From the Department of Justice press release:

The indictment describes a scheme in which Ron Calderon allegedly solicited and accepted approximately $100,000 in cash bribes – as well as plane trips, gourmet dinners and trips to golf resorts – in exchange for official acts, such as supporting legislation that would be favorable to those who paid the bribes and opposing legislation that would be harmful to them. The indictment further alleges that Ron Calderon attempted to convince other public officials to support and oppose legislation.

Another part of the press release states that Senator Calderon took bribes from Michael Drobot. Mr. Drobot used to own Pacific Hospital in Long Beach. The press release goes on to note,

Drobot allegedly bribed Ron Calderon so that he would use his public office to preserve this law that helped Drobot maintain a long-running and lucrative health care fraud scheme…

In another case filed this morning in United States District Court, Drobot has agreed to plead guilty to charges of conspiracy and paying illegal kickbacks. In his plea agreement, Drobot admits paying bribes to Ron Calderon.

We also have the wonder of film credits coming into the picture. Film credits have been a magnet for corruption; such was allegedly the case here:

In another part of the bribery scheme, Ron Calderon allegedly solicited and accepted bribes from people he thought were associated with an independent film studio, but who were in fact undercover FBI agents. Ron Calderon solicited and accepted bribes in exchange for supporting an expansion of a state law that gave tax credits to studios that produced independent films in California.

Mr. Calderon is facing a maximum of 396 years at ClubFed if found guilty on all charges.

Texas’s Gain Is California’s Loss

Sunday, February 16th, 2014

Today a client asked me about where to relocate her company headquarters. Her computer engineers aren’t thrilled with the current location, and would like to move to either California or Texas. I explained the decision has a cost difference of $165,000.

Currently, there’s a small office in California with one employee. The business, which is an S-Corporation, is taxed on the personal level (as almost all S-Corporations are). The business is profitable.

California uses a one-factor sales test to determine the percentage of income attributable to the state. Most of the sales of the company are not to California; she only owes a small amount of tax to California based on the income. Her California tax bill today is more of an annoyance than anything else.

However, if the company’s headquarters moved to California, then all sales not attributable to a state the company does business in would be attributable to California. In running an estimate for 2014, that amounts to an additional $170,000 she would owe in California tax.

On the other hand, Texas doesn’t have a state income tax. If the company’s headquarters moves to Dallas, her tax bill won’t change. Her engineers may like the Bronze Golden State slightly more than the Lone Star State; however, my client is a businesswoman who understands math.

This is a true story, and there’s no doubt in my mind that what I told my client has been duplicated by hundreds of accountants throughout the country. Taxes matter, as always.